To reframe their understanding of stress, the students completed a standardised reading and writing exercise that taught them that their stress responses had a function in performance contexts that applied directly to them, such as test-taking.
"We use a type of 'saying is believing' approach whereby participants learn about the adaptive benefits of stress and they are prompted to write about how it can help them achieve," said lead author Jeremy Jamieson, a Rochester associate professor of psychology and the principal investigator at the University's social stress lab.
He researches how experiences of stress affect decisions, emotions, and performance. The study builds on his earlier research on optimising stress responses.
Conventional thinking suggests that stress is inherently bad and should always be avoided. This may sometimes be misguided because stress is a normal and even defining feature of modern life.
"For instance, students preparing for their first job interview might perceive their racing heart and sweaty palms as signs they are nervous, in fact, the stress response is helping deliver oxygen to the brain and releasing hormones that mobilise energy," Jamieson said.
Throughout the lifespan, people must acquire a wide and varied array of complicated social and intellectual skills and then apply those skills to thrive. This process is inherently stressful, but it's also essential to being a productive member of society.
"Furthermore, if people simply disengaged from the stressors they faced, it could put them at a serious disadvantage. So, for people to thrive in modern life and overcome threats to personal and global survival, they must find a way to embrace and overcome the stressful demands," Jamieson added.
People experience increases in sympathetic arousal--which can be sweaty palms or a faster heartbeat--during stressful situations.
"Instead of thinking of everything as "bad" stress, stress responses, including stress arousal, can be beneficial when it comes to psychological, biological, performance, and behavioural outcomes," Jamieson continued.
Stress reappraisal is not aimed at eliminating or dampening stress.
"It does not encourage relaxation, but instead focuses on changing the type of stress response: If we believe we have sufficient resources to address the demands we're presented with--it doesn't matter if the demands are high--if we think we can handle them, our body is going to respond with the challenge-response, which means stress is seen as a challenge, rather than a threat," Jamieson explained.
On looking at cortisol and testosterone levels in the two groups, Jamieson said, "Broadly speaking, cortisol is a catabolic stress hormone and elevations are observed when people are threatened. So, it's often interpreted as a ‘negative stress’ indicator though it is not always ‘bad’, whereas testosterone is an anabolic hormone that supports optimal performance."
Jamieson added that they found that the reappraisal manipulation led to increases in testosterone and decreases in cortisol in the students for the classroom exam situations, which is a helpful pattern for performing at one's peak.
The lead author further shared advice for parents whose kids are stressed and anxious, especially during the pandemic.
"The first step is dissociating stress from distress and anxiety. Stress is simply the body's response to any demand, good or bad. Excitement is a stress state, as is anxiety," Jamieson said.
"It's also important for parents to understand that struggles are normal and can even be growth-promoting with proper support. Nobody innovates and thrives without moving beyond their comfort zones," Jamieson added.
For kids to grow, learn, and succeed, they will need to engage with and take on difficult tasks. The goal should not be to help kids get an A, but rather to push the limits of their knowledge and abilities, the author said.
"Normalising experiences of stress and pushing past obstacles can help kids understand that they can do hard things. Reducing stress by removing obstacles, such as eliminating exams, making coursework easier and so on can even hinder their progress," Jamieson concluded.