"We found that there is, at best, mixed evidence regarding the motivational efficacy of tangible rewards versus cash rewards," said Adam Presslee, an associate professor at the University of Waterloo's School of Accounting and Finance.

"It is somewhat puzzling why so many companies go to the trouble of tangible rewards when cash rewards also lead to motivational differences," Presslee added.

Presslee and his co-author, University of Wisconsin-Madison's Willie Choi, used four experiments to investigate the factors driving the preference between cash and tangible rewards.

The attributes examined include ease of use of the reward (fungibility), hedonic nature of the reward (want vs. need), the novelty of the reward, and how the reward is presented.

"It is somewhat puzzling why so many companies go to the trouble of tangible rewards when cash rewards also lead to motivational differences," Presslee added.

Presslee and his co-author, University of Wisconsin-Madison's Willie Choi, used four experiments to investigate the factors driving the preference between cash and tangible rewards.

The attributes examined include ease of use of the reward (fungibility), hedonic nature of the reward (want vs. need), the novelty of the reward, and how the reward is presented.

"Rewards are constellations of attributes, and firms should focus more on the motivational effects of the attributes associated with a reward rather than the reward type itself," Presslee said.

"Results confirmed that each of these attributes - individually and in combination - increases employee effort and performance," Presslee added.

The researchers recommend managers interested in motivating employees using tangible rewards would be best served to offer tangible rewards that incorporate these four attributes.

"If for whatever reason tangible rewards are the only tool available, our results show compelling evidence that employees are motivated by rewards that are perceived as distinct from salary," Presslee said.

The author added, "Therefore, firms looking to get the most out of their reward programs should emphasize the distinctiveness of those rewards, and the attributes above are four ways firms can do that."

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