"People can make a significant difference in their carbon footprint with very simple changes -- and the easiest one would be to substitute poultry for beef," said lead author Diego Rose, a professor of nutrition and food security at Tulane University's School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine.

The study also examined how the change would affect the overall environmental impact of all food consumption in the US in a day -- including the 80 per cent of diets without any changes. If only the 20 per cent of Americans who ate beef in a day switched to something else for one meal, that would reduce the overall carbon footprint of all US diets by 9.6 per cent and reduce water-use impacts by 5.9 per cent.

Agricultural production accounts for about a quarter of global greenhouse gas emissions and about 70 per cent of global freshwater withdrawals. For the study, researchers built an extensive database of the greenhouse gas emissions and water use related to the production of foods and linked it to a large federal survey that asked people what they ate over a 24-hour period.

Although swapping beef had the greatest impact, they also measured the impact of changing other items. Replacing a serving of shrimp with cod reduced greenhouse gas emissions by 34 per cent; replacing dairy milk with soymilk resulted in an 8 per cent reduction.

The greatest reduction in the water scarcity footprint came from replacing asparagus with peas, resulting in a 48 per cent decrease. Substituting peanuts in place of almonds decreased the water scarcity footprint by 30 per cent.

Although individual substitutions were the focus of the study, Rose said that addressing climate change must involve more than singular actions.

"The changes needed to address our climate problems are major. They are needed across all sectors and along with all levels of human organization from international agencies to federal and state governments to communities and households," Rose said.

"Many individuals feel strongly about this and wish to change our climate problem through direct actions that they can control. This, in turn, can change social norms about both the seriousness of the problem and the potential solutions that can address it. Our study provides evidence that even simple steps can assist in these efforts," Rose concluded.

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