Although the individuals involved in the network were active military personnel, Meta's investigation did not find enough evidence to establish if they were following orders or acting independently, according to a person with knowledge of the matter.

The takedown operation, Meta's first to hit a network focused primarily on environmental issues, may also add fire to Bolsonaro's attacks on large tech firms, which he accuses of stifling conservative voices on their platforms.

Critics say Bolsonaro and his supporters use the platforms to spread dangerous disinformation undermining Brazil's democratic institutions.

In its report, Meta said the unidentified network, which was limited in scale and authentic engagement, used fake accounts on Facebook and Instagram to post initially about land reform and the pandemic in 2020 before turning its focus to environmental issues last year.

"In 2021, they created Pages that posed as fictitious NGOs and activists focused on environmental issues in the Amazonas region of Brazil. They posted about deforestation, including arguing that not all of it is harmful, and criticizing legitimate environmental NGOs who spoke out against deforestation in the Amazon," Meta said in its report.

"Although the people behind (the network) attempted to conceal their identities and coordination, our investigation found links to individuals associated with the Brazilian Military."

Meta declined to provide additional information about its investigation.

Bolsonaro's office and the defense ministry did not immediately reply to requests for comment.

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