"The ban on saliva use has been in place for over two years in international cricket as a Covid-related temporary measure and it is considered appropriate for the ban to be made permanent," an ICC statement said.

The controversial running out by bowler of a non-striker encroaching out of his crease by the bowler is now legitimised after being moved from the "Unfair Play" section of the rules to the "Run Out" section.

"Running out a non-striker for backing up too much will now be considered as a regular run out," the ICC said.

The dismissal was famously dubbed a "Mankad" named after India bowler who ran out Australia batsman Bill Brown in the 1948 Sydney Test.

In other significant rule changes a new batter will have to face the next ball at the striker's end.

"Previously, in case the batters crossed before a catch was taken, the new batter would be at the non-striker's end," ICC said.

The time taken by an incoming batter to take strike in Tests and one-day internationals is now reduced from three minutes to two while in T20 internationals it remains at 90 seconds.

One of the other new rules says if fielders make any unfair and deliberate movements while the bowler is running in to bowl, the batting side can be awarded five penalty runs.

Another change allows the use of hybrid pitches at all men's and women's one-day and Twenty20 internationals.

Hybrid pitches, a blend of natural grass with artificial turf, have only been previously used in women's T20 internationals.

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