Prosecutors and witnesses said Dinesh Yadav was part of a mob of up to 200 mostly Hindu rioters who vandalised and set fire to the house of a woman named Manori, New Delhi's Karkardooma Court heard last month.
Yadav's lawyer, Shikha Garg, said that apart from the jail term, the court on Thursday also ordered him to pay a fine of 12,000 rupees ($161).
"We will file an appeal before a higher court," Garg told Reuters.
Prime minister Narendra Modi's administration, which draws its support mainly from the majority community, changed the citizenship law in 2019 to expedite citizenship for persecuted Hindus, Parsis, Sikhs, Buddhists, Jains and Christians who arrived in India before 31 December 2014, from Muslim-majority Afghanistan, Bangladesh and Pakistan.
Many Muslims in India have opposed the exclusion of their community. There are an estimated 200 million Muslims in India out of a population of 1.35 billion - the biggest Muslim minority in the world.