To date, however, risk factors associated with paternal depression have been less well examined. Understanding the effects of timing of both maternal and paternal depression of offspring outcomes has implications for prevention and early intervention.
In the new study, Brophy and colleagues used data from the Secure Anonymised Information Linkage (SAIL) databank assembled as part of the Born in Wales Study funded by the Welsh Government. Information on children born in Wales from 1987 to 2018, as well as their mothers and fathers -- or stable, adult male figure in the same household -- was used in the study. Both parental and child diagnosis of depression was attained from general practitioner records in the SAIL data bank.
Overall, 34.5 per cent of mothers and 18 per cent of fathers/stable men had a diagnosis of depression. In offspring, 4.34 per cent of all children, 2.85 per cent of boys, and 5.89 per cent of girls were diagnosed with depression. Children were more likely to develop depression if their mother had depression before their birth (HR 1.32, 95 per cent CI 1.21-1.43), after their birth (HR 2.00, 95 per cent CI 1.96-2.05), or both before and after their birth (HR 2.25, 95 per cent CI 2.15-2.35).
The risk of depression was also increased when their father/stable man had depression before their birth (HR 1.44, 95 per cent CI 1.18-1.74), after their birth (HR 1.66, 95 per cent CI 1.58-1.74), or both before and after their birth (HR 1.47, 95 per cent CI 1.25-1.73).
In addition, the odds of achieving milestones at the end of primary school were significantly decreased if either parent had depression -- for instance, the odds of passing Key Stage 3 (KS3) tests was 0.57 (95 per cent CI 0.55-0.60) if a child's mother had depression both before and after their birth and 0.56 (0.49-0.63) if their father man had depression both before and after their birth.
Other risk factors for children's depression identified in the study included being female, their mother taking antidepressants and having no stable man in the household. The authors conclude that the impact of paternal depression requires more attention than has previously been given, and suggest that holistic approaches to whole family wellbeing and depression will help ensure positive outcomes for children.
The authors added: "Children who live with a parent (mum or dad) who has depression are more likely to also develop depression and not achieve as well in school, compared to children who live with a parent with treated depression. Working with families and treating parental depression (in dads as well as mums) is likely to have long-term benefits for children's mental health and educational attainment. This has never been more important than after lockdown and COVID, as depression is contagious too."