Environment and climate ministers from the US, India and China will be among those taking part in the closed-door meeting, which will include both virtual and in-person attendance.
It is the first face-to-face ministerial meeting of its kind in more than 18 months.
"We are facing perilous times for our planet and the only way we will safeguard its future is if countries are on the same path," said Sharma.
"The world will be watching to see whether we come together in Glasgow and do what is necessary to turn things around in this decisive decade," he added.
The event will cover the goal of keeping to the 1.5 degree Celsius temperature rise limit, exploring topics such as climate finance, efforts to adapt to climate change, and finalising the ‘rulebook’ for implementation of the Paris Agreement.
Negotiators from 196 countries and the European Union, along with businesses, experts and world leaders are expected to attend.
US climate envoy John Kerry said this week that the summit marked a "pivotal moment for the world to come together to meet and master the climate challenge.
"Glasgow is the place, 2021 is the time and we can, in a little more than 100 days, save the next 100 years.
"Above all we need to provide action, and we need to do it now, because time is running out," he added.