But squaring that rhetoric with reality will not be easy at a time of spiralling tensions between those same global powers not seen since the Cold War.

There are growing global concerns about China’s rapid military modernisation especially after its armed forces last year announced they had developed a hypersonic missile that can fly at five times the spread of sound.

The United States has also said China is expanding its nuclear arsenal with as many as 700 warheads by 2027 and possibly 1,000 by 2030.

On Tuesday, China defended its nuclear weapons policy and said Russia and the United States -- by far the world’s largest nuclear powers -- should make the first move on disarmament.

Nuclear weapons are the ultimate deterrent, they are not for war or fighting
Fu Cong, director general of the department of arms control at the Chinese foreign ministry

“The US and Russia still possess 90 per cent of the nuclear warheads on Earth,” Fu Cong, director general of the department of arms control at the Chinese foreign ministry, told reporters.

“They must reduce their nuclear arsenal in an irreversible and legally binding manner.”

Fu dismissed US claims that China was vastly increasing its nuclear capabilities.

“China has always adopted the no first use policy and we maintain our nuclear capabilities at the minimal level required for our national security,” he said.

But he said Beijing would “continue to modernise its nuclear arsenal for reliability and safety issues”.

Taiwan, Ukraine

Ties between Beijing and Washington have been strained over a series of issues including China’s intentions to take Taiwan, which it claims as part of its territory, by force if necessary.

Beijing’s sabre-rattling towards Taiwan has reached new heights under president Xi Jinping, China’s most authoritarian leader in a generation.

Fu dismissed speculation over the possibility of deploying nuclear weapons near the Taiwan Strait.

“Nuclear weapons are the ultimate deterrent, they are not for war or fighting,” he said.

While the United States and Russia have had a formal strategic stability dialogue since the days of the Cold War, producing several disarmament agreements, that is not the case between Washington and Beijing.

In Europe, tensions with Moscow have deteriorated over a Russian troop build-up close to the Ukrainian border.

That has raised fears that the Kremlin, worried by the possibility of further eastward expansion of NATO, is planning a new attack on its pro-Western neighbour.

Crunch talks between Russia and the US on European security are expected in Geneva on 10 January.

Against this backdrop, Monday’s joint statement on nuclear weapons was a rare moment of consensus between the UN’s five permanent Security Council members.

“A nuclear war cannot be won and must never be fought,” the statement said, adding that “further spread of such weapons must be prevented”.

The statement was issued after the latest review of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) -- which first came into force in 1970 -- was postponed from its scheduled date of 4 January to later in the year due to the Covid-19 pandemic.

The statement also pledged to abide by a key article in the NPT under which states committed to full future disarmament from nuclear weapons.

The joint statement also came as the world powers seek to reach an agreement with Iran on reviving the 2015 deal over its controversial nuclear drive, which was rendered moribund by the US walking out of the accord in 2018.

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