"The study concluded that millets can provide all or most of the daily dietary iron requirements of an average person. Although the amount of iron provided depends on the millet variety and its form of processing, the research clearly shows that millets can play a promising role in preventing and reducing high levels of iron deficiency anaemia," highlighted S Anitha, the study's lead author and senior nutritionist at ICRISAT.
The researchers found that millets increased haemoglobin levels by as much as 13.2 per cent. Four studies in the review also showed serum ferritin increasing by an average of 54.7 per cent. Ferritin is an iron-containing protein in the blood and is a clinical marker for iron deficiency.
The studies in the analysis involved nearly 1,000 children, adolescents and adults, and six different millet types - finger millet, pearl millet, sorghum and a mixture of kodo, foxtail and little millets.
The participants in the studies were found to have consumed millets for anywhere between 21 days and 4.5 years.
"A total of 1.74 billion people were anaemic in 2019. That number is rising," said Jacqueline Hughes, director general of ICRISAT.
"It has been proven that iron deficiency anaemia affects cognitive and physical development in children and reduces productivity in adults. The need for a solution is critical, and therefore bringing millets into mainstream and government programs is highly recommended," added Hughes.
"Now that there is strong evidence of the value of millets in reducing or preventing iron deficiency anaemia, it is recommended that one major research study be undertaken on anaemia covering all the different types of millet, common varieties and all major forms of processing and cooking, using a uniform testing methodology. This will provide the detail required for designing interventions needed to have a major impact on reducing anaemia globally," said professor Ian Givens, a co-author of the study and director at the University of Reading's Institute of Food, Nutrition and Health (IFNH) in the UK.
"It has often been claimed that iron in millets is not highly bioavailable due to the supposed high levels of anti-nutrients. Our analysis proves this is a myth. Instead, millets were found to be comparable to typical iron bioavailability percentages for plants. Also, the levels of anti-nutrients in millets were identified to be similar or lower than common staples," said Joanna Kane-Potaka, former assistant director-general, ICRISAT, and executive director of the ‘Smart Food’ initiative and co-author of the study.
The research also showed that processing can significantly increase the amount of iron bioavailable.
For example, millet snacks made by expansion (extrusion) increased bioavailable iron 5.4 times, while fermentation, popping and malting more than tripled the iron bioavailable. Germination (sprouting) and decortication (dehulling) more than doubled the bioavailable iron.